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  •   Monumenta Altaica / Древние и средневековые письменные памятники

    Muqaddimat al-adab

    The famous dictionary Muqaddimat al-adab was compiled in the 12th century as an arabian-persian-turkic triglossa by an arabian scholar al-Zamahshari. Approximately in the 14th century mongolian part was attached to this manuscript.

    This mongolian part was thoroughly investigated by N.Poppe who published in 1938 the book named 'Mongol`skij slovar` Mukaddimat al-adab'. It contains mongolian and turkic lexicon and the description of the mongolian language used in the dictionary.

    Mukaddimat al-adab unlike other monuments in Western Middle Mongolian dialect contains not only single words but enourmous number of sentences and this is of a special value for the mongolian studies.

    The database below was compiled by Mr. Yoshio Saito . It contains all mongolian words of the dictionary with full description of where they are located in the text.


    Introduction to the database


    FIELD: Form in Roman Transliteration
    In the Roman transliteration an apostrophe < ' > is used for 'hamza' and a commercial a <@> for ''alif'. The letters for pharyngeal(ized), dental, and postalveolar sounds are followed by an exclamation mark < ! >
    ordinary transliteration transliteration. in the database
    h with a dot below h!
    s with a dot below s!
    d with a dot below d!
    t with a dot below t!
    z with a dot below z!
    ' ('ayn) o!
    gh (ghayn) g!
    The word-final allograph appearing in word-medial position is shown by a sharp sign. For example, the second vowel 'e' in ebesün (grass) is in one form rendered with final form of 'ha' ' in Arabic transcription, and is transliterated as h# like '@ybh#swn'.
    The words with no original form in Poppe (1938), etc. is indicated with a hypen.

    FIELD: Form in Roman 'Transcription'

    The Roman-transcribed forms of Poppe, etc. are given with some modifications in this field. Since this is not transcription in a strict sense, the word 'transcription' is in quotation marks.

    FIELD: Corresponding Written Mongol / Turkic / Persian / Arabic Form in Roman Transcription

    To facilitate the process of computer searching,
  • morphemes are separated by a hyphen.
  • Seven vowels are distinguished in the stem/root.
  • Rounded vowels in non-initial syllables are transcribed with u and ü alone, not using o and ö
  • Only a back-vocalic form of a suffix is used for both 'masculine' and 'feminine' stems. E.g.:

    ire-ba for irebe (came)

    bol-ba for bolba (became)

  • No distinction is made between front and back velars. E.g.:
  • ger for ger (yurt)

    gajara for [gamma]ajara (ground)

    kü'ün for kümün (person)

    kara for qar-a (black)

  • Morphological transcription is employed using one of the allomorphic forms for each morpheme. E.g.:
  • tegün-yin for tegün-u

    mal-yin for mal-un

    mori-yin for mori-yin

    FIELD: Clue

    A hint as to the word's identity is given in this field.

    FIELD: Page Number

    Number of the page on which the Roman-transcribed sentence containing the entry starts. For instance, the page number of the last three words in the following sentence is not '115' but '114'.

    bayasqulan [p.114] / [p.115] kelen kürgebe tündü

    FIELD: Column

    The column in which the Roman-transcribed sentence having the entry starts. The letters 'l' and 'r' are short for left column and right column respectively. For example, the last word of the following sentence does not have 'r' but 'l' in this field.

    emeyin kökeni sütü [left column] / [right column] bolba

    FIELD: Line Number

    Number of the line on which the Roman-transcribed sentence with the entry starts. For example, the line number for the last two words of the following sentence is not '03' but '02'.

    belge ügei [line 2] / [line 3] kibe keleni

    Two sentences printed on the same line are distinguished by the letters 'a' and 'b' following the line number.

    FIELD: Position of a Word in Sentence The figure in this field indicates the entry's position in sentence. When the same word spelled in the same way follow one after another, no original form is given in Poppe (1938) except for the first one. Such omitted forms are marked by an asterisk '*' in this field.

    FIELD: Page Number in the Original Manuscript

    The page number of the original text given in Poppe (1938), etc. is input in this field. Where numbers are omitted, a hyphen is inserted in this field.


    copyright Saito Yoshio 2002

    Here you can see only the beginning of the database, containing approximately 20 000 words. You can download the full database free.
    Transliteration Transcription Clue Page Col. Number Position Original page. Corresponding word
    @~b@ aba hunt 093 l 02 1 0429 aba
    @b@jy abaci hunter 093 l 03 1 0199 aba-ci
    @b@d@n abadan cultivated, peopled 093 l 05 1 0641 P. a:ba:da:n
    bwlbh bolba to become 093 l 05 2 0641 bol-ba
    b@lg!@swn balgasun city 093 l 05 3 0641 balgasun
    kr ger house 093 l 05 4 0641 ger
    @b@d@n abadan cultivated, peopled 093 l 08 1* 0891 P. a:ba:da:n
    bwlbh bolba to become 093 l 08 2 0891 bol-ba
    g!@j@r gajar place 093 l 08 3 0891 gajar
    @b@d@n abadan cultivated, peopled 093 l 10 1* 0328 P. a:ba:da:n
    bwltwg!@y boltugai   093 l 10 2 0328 bol-tugai
    jym@dw cimadu   093 l 10 3 0328 cima-dur
    @b@d@n abadan cultivated, peopled 093 l 13 1* 0632 P. a:ba:da:n
    g!@j@r gajar place 093 l 13 2 0632 gajar
    @b@d@n abadan cultivated, peopled 093 l 15 1* 0449 P. a:ba:da:n
    kybh kibe to do 093 l 15 2 0449 ki-ba
    @yrh ere man 093 l 15 3 0449 ere
    @ybdrky ebderki:   093 l 15 4 0449 ebderkei
    g!@j@ry gajari place 093 l 15 5 0449 gajar-yi
    @b@d@n abadan cultivated, peopled 093 l 19 1* 0642 P. a:ba:da:n
    kybh kibe to do 093 l 19 2* 0642 ki-ba
    twny tü:ni   093 l 19 3 0642 tegün-yi
    @yrh ere male 093 l 19 4 0642 ere
    kwwn küÕü:n person 093 l 19 5 0642 kümün
    @b@d@n abadan cultivated, peopled 093 l 21 1* 0642 P. a:ba:da:n
    kykjy kikci   093 l 21 2 0642 ki-gci
    @b@d@n abadan cultivated, peopled 093 l 23 1* 0642 P. a:ba:da:n
    kyks@n kiksen   093 l 23 2 0642 ki-gsan
    @~b@d@n#l@bh abadanlaba   093 l 25 1 0585 P. a:ba:da:n M. -la-ba
    @sb@b@n asbaba:n   093 l 25 2 0585 A. asba:b M. -iyan
    @~b@d@nl@bh abadanlaba   093 l 28 1* 1026 P. a:ba:da:n M. -la-ba
    twny tü:ni   093 l 28 2 1026 tegün-yi
    @b@dw abadu hunt 093 r 04 1 0832 aba-dur
    swrwqs@n suruqsan   093 r 04 2 0832 sur-u-gsan
    @~b@l@bh abalaba   093 r 07 1 0429 aba-la-ba
    @~b@l@bh abalaba   093 r 08 1* 0850 aba-la-ba
    @b@jy abaci   093 r 08 2 0850 aba-ci
    šyb@wwn šibawu:n bird 093 r 08 3 0850 sibagun
    šyb@wwy šibawu:yi bird 093 r 08 4 0850 sibagu-yi
    @~b@l@bh abalaba   093 r 12 1* 0539 aba-la-ba
    @b@yy abayi   093 r 12 2 0539 aba-yi
    @~b@l@bh abalaba   093 r 13 1* 0636 aba-la-ba
    klsy kelesi lizard 093 r 13 2 0636 T. keler M. -yi
    @~b@l@bh abalaba   093 r 15 1* 0539 aba-la-ba
    mwg!@yy mogayi snake 093 r 15 2 0539 mogai-yi
    @~b@l@bh abalaba   093 r 17 1* 0338, 0555, 0590 aba-la-ba
    twny tü:ni   093 r 17 2 0338, 0555, 0590 tegün-yi
    @b@l@bh#l@r abalabalar   093 r 20 1 - aba-la-ba T. -lar
    @b@l@qw abalaqu   093 r 22 1 0299 aba-la-ku
    šyb@wwn šibawu:n   093 r 22 2 0299 sibagun
    @b@ldwbh abalduba   093 r 25 1 0515 ab-u-ldu-ba
    twnlh tü:nle:   093 r 25 2 0515 tegün-luga
    @b@ldwbh#l@r abaldubalar   094 l 01 1 1009 ab-u-ldu-ba T. -lar
    @b@yn abaХi:n   094 l 03 1 0448 aba-yin
    b@yqw baiqu   094 l 03 2 0448 bayi-ku
    g!aj@ry gajari place 094 l 03 3 0448 gajar-yi
    @ynd@bh endebe to be mistaken 094 l 03 4 0448 ende-ba
    @~bjy abci   094 l 07 1 0722 ab-ju
    @wrjybh orciba   094 l 07 2 0722 orci-ba
    twny tü:ni   094 l 07 3 0722 tegün-yi
    kyyr ke'e:r steppe 094 l 07 4 0722 kegere
    @~bjy abci   094 l 09 1* 0853 ab-ju
    @wrjybh orciba   094 l 09 2* 0853 orci-ba
    twny tü:ni   094 l 09 3* 0853 tegün-yi
    mwryn morin   094 l 09 4 0853 morin
    @bjwrjybh abcorciba   094 l 12 1 0919 ab-ju orci-ba
    twny tü:ni   094 l 12 2 0919 tegün-yi
    @bw?bh abuba to take 094 l 14 1 0538 ab-u-ba
    g!@ly gali   094 l 14 2 0538 gal-yi
    d@g!y dagi and 094 l 14 3 0538 T. dagiz
    swrbh surba   094 l 14 4 0538 sur-ba
    bylyky biligi   094 l 14 5 0538 bilig-yi
    @bw?bh abuba to take 094 l 18 1* 0349 ab-u-ba
    m@ly ma:li property 094 l 18 2 0349 A. ma:l M. -yi
    @bw?bh abuba to take 094 l 20 1* 0514 ab-u-ba
    twn@sh tü:ne:se   094 l 20 2 0514 tegün-aca
    mwlyg!y mu:ligi   094 l 20 3 0514 magu-lig-yi
    @bw?bh abuba to take 094 l 23 1* 0348 ab-u-ba
    twn@sh tü:ne:se   094 l 23 2* 0348 tegün-aca
    @wry öri debt 094 l 23 3 0348 öri
    @bw?bh abuba to take 094 l 25 1* - ab-u-ba
    twn@sh tü:ne:se   094 l 25 2* - tegün-aca
    q@yg!w qaigu anxiety 094 l 25 3 - T. kaigu
    @bw?bh abuba to take 094 l 27 1* 0343 ab-u-ba
    twn@sh tü:ne:se   094 l 27 2* 0343 tegün-aca
    y@mh ya:ma thing 094 l 27 3 0343 yaguma
    @bw?bh abuba to take 094 l 29 1* 0386 ab-u-ba
    twn@sh tü:ne:se   094 l 29 2* 0386 tegün-aca
    y@mh#yy ya:mayi thing 094 l 29 3 0386 yaguma-yi
    @bw?bh abuba to take 094 l 31 1* 0594 ab-u-ba
    twny tü:ni   094 l 31 2 0594 tegün-yi
    @bw?bh abuba to take 094 l 33 1* 0441 ab-u-ba
    @ws!wny usuni   094 l 33 2 0441 usun-yi
    @wryn ö:ri:n oneХs own 094 l 33 3 0441 öber-yin
    g!@r@r gara:r hand (i) 094 l 33 4 0441 gar-iyar
    @bw?bh abuba to take 094 r 03 1* 0595 ab-u-ba
    @wk@yy ügeyi word 094 r 03 2 0595 üge-yi
    twny tü:ni   094 r 03 3 0595 tegün-yin
    @m@n@sh amana:sa mouth (ab) 094 r 03 4 0595 aman-aca
    @bw?bh abuba to take 094 r 07 1* 1020 ab-u-ba
    y@mh#yy ya:mayi thing 094 r 07 2 1020 yaguma-yi
    @bwlj@b@l@r abulcabalar   094 r 10 1 0548 ab-u-lca-ba T. -lar
    @wlj@yy oljayi   094 r 10 2 0548 olja-yi
    @bwqs@n abuqsan   094 r 13 1 0794 ab-u-gsan
    @bry aburi character 094 r 15 1 0154, 0155 aburi
    @bry aburi character 094 r 16 1* 0580 aburi
    swrbh surba   094 r 16 2 0580 sur-ba
    @bry aburi character 094 r 18 1* 0451 aburi
    swrg!@bh surgaba   094 r 18 2 0451 sur-ga-ba
    twndw tü:ndü   094 r 18 3 0451 tegün-dur
    @brytw aburitu   094 r 21 1 0749 aburi-tu
    @ja@a@an acaХa:n load 094 r 23 1 0044 aciyan
    @j@@~n acaХa:n load 094 r 24 1 0966 aciyan
    @~wwrbh awu:rba   094 r 24 2 0966 ogur-ba
    @wnq@j@dw ongqacadu boat (d-l) 094 r 24 3 0966 onguca-dur
    @j@@n acaХa:n load 094 r 26 1 0681 aciyan
    @wrkwbh örgübe to lift up 094 r 26 2 0681 ergü-ba
    @jr@bh acaraba to bring 094 r 29 1 0930 acara-ba
    twndw tü:ndü   094 r 29 2 0930 tegün-dur
    y@mh#yy ya:mayi thing 094 r 29 3 0930 yaguma-yi
    @jr@bh acaraba to bring 094 r 32 1* 0607 acara-ba
    twny tü:ni   094 r 32 2 0607 tegün-yi
    @j@nw aciХa:nu load 095 l 01 1 0109 aciyan-yin
    @wr@lh öre:le one of the pair 095 l 01 2 0109 örügel
    @jy@tw aciХa:tu   095 l 04 1 0643 aciya-tu
    @ymh eme   095 l 04 2 0643 eme
    @jy@tw aciХa:tu   095 l 06 1* 0620 aciya-tu
    kybh kibe to do 095 l 06 2 0620 ki-ba
    xrm@yn xurma:Хi:n date palm 095 l 06 3 0620 P. xurma: M. -yin
    mwdwny moduni tree 095 l 06 4 0620 modun-yi
    @jybh aciba   095 l 11 1 1011 aci-ba
    twndw tü:ndü   095 l 11 2 1011 tegün-dur
    @jybh aciba   095 l 13 1* 0478 aci-ba
    twndw tü:ndü   095 l 13 2* 0478 tegün-dur
    @wyl@y üileyi   095 l 13 3 0478 üile-yi
    @jybh aciba   095 l 15 1* - aci-ba
    twny tü:ni   095 l 15 2 - tegün-yi
    @jyrh acira   095 l 17 1 0327 acara-
    @jyrh acira   095 l 18 1* 1065 acara-
    tyrh tere   095 l 18 2 1065 tere
    y@mh#yy ya:mayi thing 095 l 18 3 1065 yaguma-yi
    @jyr@bh aciraba   095 l 21 1 0340 acara-ba
    @yd@kwyy ideküyi   095 l 21 2 0340 ide-ku-yi
    @~jyrm aciram   095 l 24 1 0607 acara-m
    @~jyrm aciram   095 l 25 1* 0612 acara-m
    twny tü:ni   095 l 25 2 0612 tegün-yi
    @d@ly adali   095 l 27 1 0957, 0165 adali
    @d@ly adali   095 l 28 1* 1035 adali
    bwlbh bolba   095 l 28 2 1035 bol-ba
    kwl@swn kölesün payment for work 095 l 28 3 1035 kölüsün
    @d@ly adali   095 l 31 1* 0515, 0518 adali
    bwlbh bolba   095 l 31 2* 0515, 0518 bol-ba
    twndw tü:ndü   095 l 31 3 0515, 0518 tegün-dur
    @d@lytq@bh adalitqaba   095 r 01 1 0997 adalidka-ba
    @yjyk@dw ecigedü father 095 r 01 2 0997 ecige-dur
    @d@lytq@bh adalitqaba   095 r 04 1* 0375 adalidka-ba
    @yrh#yy ereyi   095 r 04 2* 0375 ere-yi
    @yjyk@dw ecigedü father 095 r 04 3 0375 ecige-dur
    @d@lytq@bh adalitqaba   095 r 07 1* 0530 adalidka-ba
    twny tü:ni   095 r 07 2 0530 tegün-yi
    @d@lytq@bh adalitqaba   095 r 08 1* 0354 adalidka-ba
    twny tü:ni   095 r 08 2* 0354 tegün-yi
    @yjk@dw ecigedü father 095 r 08 3 0354 ecige-dur
    @d@lytq@bh adalitqaba   095 r 11 1* 0481 adalidka-ba
    twny tü:ni   095 r 11 2* 0481 tegün-yi
    tyrh tere   095 r 11 3 0481 tere
    y@mh#dw ya:madu   095 r 11 4 0481 yaguma-dur
    @d@lytq@bh adalitqaba   095 r 14 1* 1034 adalidka-ba
    twny tü:ni   095 r 14 2* 1034 tegün-yi
    twndw tü:ndü   095 r 14 3 1034 tegün-dur
    @d@lytq@bh adalitqaba   095 r 16 1* 0518, 0521 adalidka-ba
    twnlh tü:nle:   095 r 16 2 0518, 0521 tegün-luga
    @d@lytq@bh adalitqaba   095 r 20 1* 0341 adalidka-ba
    y@mh ya:ma   095 r 20 2 0341 yaguma
    y@mh#dw ya:madu   095 r 20 3 0341 yaguma-dur
    @d@lytq@bh#l@r adalitqabalar   095 r 24 1 1011 adalidka-ba T. -lar
    @d@lytq@bh#l@r adalitqabalar   095 r 26 1* 1013 adalidka-ba T. -lar
    nym nim   095 r 26 2 1013 nib
    nyk@ny nikeni   095 r 26 3 1013 nigen-yi
    @d@swn adasun   095 r 30 1 0543 adugusun
    @yd@kw idekü   095 r 30 2 0543 ide-ku
    y@mh ya:ma   095 r 30 3 0543 yaguma
    @~dynh adina Friday 095 r 33 1 0016 P. a:di:na
    @wdwr ödür day 095 r 33 2 0016 edür
    @~dynh#yn adinaХi:n   096 l 01 1 0078 P. a:di:na M. -yin
    msjd mesjid mosque 096 l 01 2* 0078 A. masjid
    @dwswn adu:sun animal 096 l 04 1 0597 adugusun
    @dwswn adu:sun animal 096 l 05 1* 0091 adugusun
    b@yqw baiqu   096 l 05 2 0091 bayi-ku
    g!@j@r gajar place 096 l 05 3 0091 gajar
    @dwswn adu:sun animal 096 l 07 1* 0281 adugusun
    @yd@kw idekü   096 l 07 2 0281 ide-ku
    @yb@swn ebesün   096 l 07 3 0281 ebesün
    @dwswn adu:sun animal 096 l 09 1* 0045 adugusun
    @wr@qs@n oraqsan   096 l 09 2 0045 oru-gsan
    @ws!wn usun   096 l 09 3 0045 usun
    @dwswn adu:sun animal 096 l 12 1* 1055 adugusun
    @wj@kjy üjekci   096 l 12 2 1055 üje-gci
    s@yyn sayin   096 l 12 3 1055 sayin
    @wj@bh üjebe   096 l 12 4 1055 üje-ba
    @dwswny adu:suni:   096 l 18 1 0080 adugusun-yin
    b@z@r ba:za:r   096 l 18 2 0080 P. ba:za:r
    @dwswny adu:suni:   096 l 20 1* 1055 adugusun-yin
    qwy@r qoyar two 096 l 20 2 1055 koyar
    jyqyn ciqin ear 096 l 20 3 1055 cikin

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